Factory lighting design scope and types

A factory is a place where a given product is produced. It is generally composed of production plant R & D offices, logistics and other ancillary buildings, outdoor cereal plants, stations, yards, roads, etc.
Factory lighting design scope includes indoor lighting, outdoor installation lighting, station lighting, underground lighting, road lighting, sanitation lighting, obstacle lighting, etc.
(1) Interior lighting: interior lighting of the production plant, research and development, and office interior lighting.
(2) Outdoor device lighting: Lighting for various outdoor devices. Such as the shipyard’s open-air operation site, the kettles, tanks and reaction towers of petrochemical companies, rotary kilns of building materials companies, belt corridors, blast furnace furnaces, ladders, platforms of metallurgical companies, gas tanks of power stations, and total pressure reduction Lighting for outdoor transformer substations and substations, cooling racks (towers) for outdoor pumping stations, and outdoor ventilation and dust removal equipment.
(3) Station yard lighting: Illumination of stations, railway marshalling stations, parking lots, open storage yards, outdoor test yards, etc.
(4) Underground lighting: lighting in basements, cable tunnels, integrated pipe corridors and tunnels.
(5) Evacuation lighting: The lighting that is effectively identified and used in the evacuation passages in the factory buildings.
(6) Guard lighting: Lighting set up along the perimeter of the factory area and around guard areas of key places.
(7) Obstacle lighting: There are super tall buildings and structures in the factory area, such as chimneys, etc. According to the regional aviation conditions, the signs need to be installed according to relevant regulations.
This chapter focuses on the lighting inside the production plant. For other lighting, please refer to the relevant chapters of this manual.

Characteristics and classification of industrial plants

1. Industrial plant features
Industrial plants can be divided into single-story and multi-story industrial buildings according to their architectural structure. The majority of multi-story industrial buildings are found in light industry, electronics, instrumentation, communications, medicine and other industries. The floors of such workshops are generally not very high. Their lighting design is similar to common scientific research and experimental buildings, and more fluorescent lighting solutions are used. The production workshops in industries such as machining, automobile, metallurgy, and textile are generally single-story industrial buildings, and according to production needs, more are multi-span single-story industrial workshops.
On the basis of meeting the requirements of a certain building modulus, a single-storey factory building determines its building width (span), length and height depending on the process needs. The span of the factory building (B) is generally: 6,9,12,15,18,21,24, 27,30,36m …, the length of the factory building (L): from tens of meters to hundreds of meters. Building height (H): 5 ~ 6m low, 30 ~ 40m high, or even higher. The span and height of the plant are the main factors considered in the design of the plant lighting. In addition, according to the needs of industrial production continuity and the transportation of products between T sections, most industrial plants are equipped with city cattle, Yangdi, Lili, Xiaoqiancho, 3 ~ 5t, large Jingshi and city (single crane in the machinery industry of the day before) The lifting weight is up to 8R. Ming Dynasty lamps are generally installed in 100 public places. Tall space workshops are usually fixed on roof trusses. Factory roof luminaires on metal roofs can be fixedly installed on tags. Netting-structured factory luminaires can be fixed on grid frames. On, cast Zhaian, some lamps can be installed on the wall or on the pole.

Classification of industrial plants

According to the characteristics of product production, industrial plants can be roughly divided into the following types:
(1) General production plant: a plant produced under normal circumstances.
(2) Clean plant: A production plant with clean operating environment requirements.
(3) Explosive hazardous environment: An environment where explosive dangerous substances are produced or stored.
(4) Fire danger place: A place where flammable substances are produced or stored.
(5) Production workshops in harsh environments: dusty, humid, high-temperature or Yan Yan, vibration, smoke, acid-base corrosive gases or substances, radiation materials.
(6) Fire and explosive dangerous environment production plant: a plant that normally produces or stores fire and explosive dangerous substances.
According to the above classification, lighting design should be strictly in accordance with different production conditions and relevant specifications.

General requirements for factory lighting design

Factory lighting should be designed in accordance with the following general principles.
1. Choice of lighting method
(1) Illumination requirements are high, and the density of working positions is not large. Hybrid lighting should be used in places where general lighting alone is not reasonable.
(2) The illumination requirements for the operation are not high, or when it is not suitable to install local lighting, or it is not reasonable to use mixed lighting due to production technical conditions, general lighting should be used alone.
(3) Partial general lighting can be used when different sections of the same space require different requirements.
(4) Local lighting should be added to the working surface where the general lighting cannot meet the illuminance requirements.
(5) Only partial lighting should be installed in the work area.

Light source selection

The lighting source should be selected according to the characteristics and requirements of the production process. It should meet the requirements of the production process and the environment on color rendering, start-up time, etc., and should be determined after comprehensive technical and economic analysis and comparison based on the light source efficiency and life.
Control rooms, laboratories, inspection rooms, instruments, electronic components, numerical control processing, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food, beverages, cigarettes, and other production sites, as well as production sites with a height of 7 to 8 meters and below, should be selected with thin tube straight tube three primary colors Fluorescent lamps; metal halide lamps can be used in high-rise buildings, and high-pressure sodium lamps can be used without color development requirements.
Except for special places with strict requirements for preventing electromagnetic interference, which cannot be met with other light sources, factories should not use ordinary incandescent lamps.
With the development of LED light sources, it is an inevitable trend for LED lights to enter the field of factory lighting. This light source has many advantages such as fast starting point, convenient dimming, high light efficiency and long life.It can be widely used in factory lighting places. The general color rendering index of general lighting LED lamps should meet the following requirements:
(1) Ra should not be lower than 80 for long-term work or stay, and Ra should not be lower than 60 when installed in large-space places with a height greater than 8m;
(2) Ra should not be less than 80 when used in places with requirements for distinguishing colors;
(3) Ra should not be lower than 90 for local lighting for color inspection.

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